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Download The Engineers Guide to Decoding Encoding by John Watkinson PDF

By John Watkinson

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Luminance passes through a compensating delay. 1. -90° Subcarrier PAL demodulator The burst locked oscillator is heavily damped and runs at the average phase of burst. 8 kHz. This is the V-switch signal and it is used to invert the V-signal 43 on alternate lines. This can be done by switching the quadrature reference between plus and minus 90 degrees, or by switching in and out an inverter in the baseband V signal. This simple demodulator relies upon the eye to average out phase errors and if these are serious, the result will be Hanover blinds.

In PAL temporal frequencies due to motion are only rejected up to 3 Hz. Such frequencies are easily reached even by the motion of undetailed areas. 4 Line combs The repetitive nature of the composite spectrum suggests the use of comb filters. The luminance repeats at multiples of line rate with the chroma between. 1. 1a) shows the ideal frequency response of a comb filter for NTSC and b) shows the ideal response for PAL in which the “teeth” are spaced half as far apart. The ideal square teeth shown cannot be achieved in practice because the number of points in the filter has to be infinite.

1(a&b). 1a) shows a diagonal comb filter based on 312-line delays and the corresponding vertical/temporal response. 312 lines is one field period to the nearest line. A delay of 312 lines has the same state of V-switch on input and output so can meaningfully be combined to create chroma. Owing to interlace, summing three points at a spacing of 312 lines places the impulse response diagonally on three different picture lines vertically and in three different fields temporally, hence the diagonal response.

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