By Terence Parr
ANTLR v3 is the main strong, easy-to-use parser generator equipped thus far, and represents the fruits of greater than 15 years of analysis via Terence Parr. This booklet is the fundamental reference advisor to utilizing this thoroughly rebuilt model of ANTLR, with its extraordinary new LL(*) parsing know-how, tree building amenities, StringTemplate code iteration template engine, and complicated ANTLRWorks GUI improvement surroundings. discover ways to use ANTLR at once from the writer!
ANTLR is a parser generator-a application that generates code to translate a particular enter language right into a great, tidy info constitution. you could imagine that parser turbines are just used to construct compilers. yet in reality, programmers often use parser turbines to construct translators and interpreters for domain-specific languages akin to proprietary facts codecs, universal community protocols, textual content processing languages, and domain-specific programming languages.
Domain-specific languages are very important to software program improvement simply because they characterize a extra average, excessive constancy, powerful, and maintainable technique of encoding an issue than just writing software program in a general-purpose language. for instance, NASA makes use of domain-specific command languages for house missions to enhance reliability, lessen hazard, decrease fee, and raise the rate of improvement. Even the 1st Apollo suggestions keep an eye on laptop from the Sixties used a domain-specific language that supported vector computations.
This publication is the definitive consultant to utilizing the thoroughly rebuilt ANTLR v3 and describes all good points intimately, together with the fantastic new LL(*) parsing know-how, tree building amenities, StringTemplate code iteration template engine, and complicated ANTLRWorks GUI improvement setting. You'll study all approximately ANTLR grammar syntax, resolving grammar ambiguities, parser fault tolerance and blunder reporting, embedding activities to interpret or translate languages, construction intermediate-form bushes, extracting details from bushes, producing resource code, and the way to exploit the ANTLR Java API.
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Extra resources for The Definitive ANTLR Reference: Building Domain-Specific Languages
Org/works . Bovet is the developer of ANTLRWorks, with some functional requirements from me. He began development during his master’s degree at the University of San Francisco but is continuing to develop the tool. 3: ANTLRWorks grammar development environment; grammar editor view grammars. Perhaps most important, ANTLRWorks helps you resolve grammar analysis errors, which can be tricky to figure out manually. 4: ANTLRWorks debugger while parsing Java code; the input, parse tree, and grammar are synched at all times ANTLRWorks is written entirely in highly portable Java (using Swing) and is available as open source under the BSD license.
Memoization plus backtracking provides all the power you need with fast recognition speed. So, ANTLR can usually build a recognizer from a grammar, but can you always define a grammar for a given language? The answer is no. Well, you can’t always define one purely with the grammar rules themselves. The next section describes language constructs that are easy to define in English language descriptions, but difficult to express in a straightforward grammar. Encoding Phrase Context and Precedence Some languages have phrases that only make sense in the context of other phrases, which is sometimes difficult to encode properly with a grammar.
R ECOGNIZING L ANGUAGE S YNTAX Here’s what we want the translator to do: when it sees 3+4, it should emit 7. When it sees dogs=21, it should map dogs to value 21. If the translator ever sees dogs again, it should pretend we typed 21 instead of dogs. How do we even start to solve this problem? Well, there are two overall tasks: 1. Build a grammar that describes the overall syntactic structure of expressions and assignments. The result of that effort is a recognizer that answers yes or no as to whether the input was a valid expression or assignment.