By Frederick C. Williams and David A. Deese (Eds.)
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S. imperialists in an effort to force China to undertake not to manufacture nuclear weapons. (29) In the eyes of the Soviet leaders, the whole world and the destiny of all mankind revolve around nuclear weapons. Therefore they hold on tightly to their nuclear weapons, afraid that someone might take them away or come to possess them, and so break up their monopoly. OO) After China exploded its first nuclear device in 1964, West Germany became the critical country in Soviet nonproliferation policy.
In addition, a 1000 MWe reactor, the VVER-1000 is under construction. On the Kola peninsula near Murmansk, there is a power station with two VVER-440 reactors in operation. Before this station was built, hydroelectric resources supplied about 80 percent of the power to the Kola peninsula. Coal and oil were hauled across the tundra to supply the remaining power. (52) The Armenian nuclear power station and the West Ukrainian station, near Rovno, each have one VVER-440 reactor in operation and another under construction.
The Soviet Union put pressure on countries to ratify the treaty. All of the Eastern European countries - with the exception of Albania - signed and ratified the Nonproliferation Treaty. (34) China, of course, did not sign. The NPT provided the Soviet Union with a convenient excuse to refuse requests for nuclear weapons, even from countries such as Cuba and Egypt that had not ratified the treaty. (36) In particular, Moscow has not condemned the Indian nuclear explosion. Soviet nonproliferation policy is opportunistic.