By Stanley M Walas
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Additional info for Chemical process equipment : selection and design
Propylene oxide in the amount of 5000 tons/yr will be made by the chlorohydrin process. The basic feed material is a hydrocarbon mixture containing 90% propylene and the balance propane which does not react. This material is diluted with spent gas from the process to provide a net feed to chlorination which contains 4011101 % propylene. Chlorine gas contains 3% each of air and carbon dioxide as contaminants. Chlorination is accomplished in a packed tower in which the hydrocarbon steam is contacted with a saturated aqueous solution of chlorine.
From there it is pumped with J-lA&B to parallel furnaces B-lA&B from which it comes out at 890°F and 200 psig. Each of the split streams enters at the bottom of its own evaporator T-lA&B that has five trays. Overheads from the evaporators combine and enter at the bottom of a 30-tray fractionator T-2. A portion of the bottoms from the fractionator is fed to the top trays of T-lA&B; the remainder goes through exchanger E-5 and is pumped with J-2A&B back to the furnaces B-1A&B. The bottoms of the evaporators are pumped with J4A&B through exchangers E-5, E-3A (on crude), and E-3B (on cooling water) before proceeding to storage as the fuel product.
The amount of phenol in this stream is 2000 lb/hr. Excess caustic (5%) is fed to the emulsifier. Process description: The principal reactions in the plant are + C6H,Cl 2NaOH+ C,H,ONa + NaCl C,H,ONa + HCl +C6HsOH + NaCl + H,O I 2C,H,OH + (C,H,),O + H,O From storage, monochlorbenzene and 10% caustic are pumped together with diphenyl ether from decanter V-102 into emulsifier V-101 which is provided with intense agitation. The effluent from that vessel is pumped with a high pressure steam driven reciprocating pump P-103 at 4000 psig through a feed-effluent exchanger E-101 and through the tube side of a direct fired heater R-101.