This e-book stories the kingdom of artwork within the box of chemical sensors for analyses of ionic or molecular species dissolved in liquid media, typically in aqueous suggestions. The transduction of such units relies on chemical, organic and actual phenomena. the elemental phenomena focused on those sensors are defined within the assorted chapters via experts having an outstanding services within the box. a number of fresh bibliographic references are given. lots of the units might be miniaturised utilizing smooth applied sciences permitting a fabrication on a wide scale, for a mass creation at low-cost. in addition, such units may well open the sector of functions in a close to destiny (environmental, biomedical, nutrition industries, domotic and automobile functions etc.).Content:
Chapter 1 basic positive factors (pages 1–23): Bernard Michaux
Chapter 2 Chemical Sensors: improvement and business necessities (pages 25–44): Jacques Fouletier and Pierre Fabry
Chapter three Sensitivity and Selectivity of Electrochemical Sensors (pages 45–80): Pierre Fabry and Jean?Claude Moutet
Chapter four Potentiometric Sensors (Ions and Dissolved Gases) (pages 81–113): Annie Pradel and Eric Saint?Aman
Chapter five Amperometric Sensors (pages 115–171): Alain Walcarius, Chantal Gondran and Serge Cosnier
Chapter 6 ISFET, BioFET Sensors (pages 173–208): Nicole Jaffrezic?Renault and Claude Martelet
Chapter 7 Biosensors and Chemical Sensors established Upon Guided Optics (pages 209–231): Jean?Pierre Goure and Loic Blum
Chapter eight Sensors and Voltammetric Probes for In Situ tracking of hint components in Aquatic Media (pages 233–285): Marie?Louise Tercier?Waeber and Jacques Buffle
Chapter nine Chemometrics (pages 287–306): Philippe Breuil
Chapter 10 Impedancemetric Sensors (pages 307–330): Jacques Fouletier and Pierre Fabry
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Additional info for Chemical and Biological Microsensors: Applications in Liquid Media
The lower these coefficients are, the more selective the system is. Notice here that the terminology adopted is not very judicious from a logical point of view. It would be wiser to use interference coefficients of ions, i, on the primary species, p. The value of the coefficient would thus be the smaller as interference would be weaker, the logic would then be direct instead of reversed. Nevertheless, to concur with a standard frame, it is better to surrender and accept the terminology adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Of course, a reference point with a constant voltage (reference electrode) must be available. In fact, a potentiometric sensor is equivalent to an electrochemical half-cell, the remaining half-cell being the external reference electrode [IVE 61]. 1 shows an example of a complete electrochemical chain. 1. Electrochemical chain corresponding to a Na+-sensitive ISE (glass membrane) dipped into an aqueous solution, with an external reference electrode Sensitivity and Selectivity of Electrochemical Sensors 47 It is important to consider here that the quantity of matter exchanged between the membrane and the measured medium during the establishment of equilibrium is extremely minute, because very few charges (ions) are sufficient to modify the potential significantly.
The chemical sensors market in the biomedical field is thus relatively small (a few thousands per year), but amounts to several hundred million Euros per year if the whole instrumental systems are included. 4. New needs and industrial applications As mentioned several times in this chapter, there are several areas in which enduser requirements have not been met. These can be summed up in four essential aspects. 1. Creation of new sensors In some cases, the lack of a suitable chemical sensor impedes the measurement of a substance, which is required by an end-user.