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Additional resources for Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization
9 Treatment options for liquid nuclear waste streams Aqueous wastes Organic wastes Method DF Chemical precipitation Ion exchange Evaporation Reverses osmosis Filtration (ultra and micro) Solvent extraction 10–100 >104 104–106 100–1000 Up to 99% — Incineration Wet oxidation Electrochemical oxidation Acid digestion Biological digestion Emulsification DF, decontamination factor. non-mandatory guidance instruments which contain recommendations designed to assist people and organizations in meeting the legal requirements (IAEA, 2009c; Abdel Rahman, 2012).
7. Management support is achieved by assigning the minimization programme as one of the facility’s performance indicators. Different source reduction strategies should be adopted and implemented from the planning phase of the plant to the decommissioning phase. Finally, the waste should be subjected to volume reduction before being disposed (IAEA, 2006). The presentation of control on contamination spread is one of the activities conducted in the minimization programme. Finally, the selection of the treatment processes and the chemicals utilized may help in avoiding the production of chemically toxic radioactive wastes (Abdel Rahman, 2012).
The flexibility of the technology to process different waste streams addresses a balance between a small simple specific technology which the generator of a single waste stream might use and a larger, more versatile technology that might be used at a central processing facility. 6. The site characteristics have implications for both waste processing and storage facilities. The characteristics include hydrogeology, seismicity, climate, the proximity of airports, populated areas, water, power and personnel.