By Peter Winterhalter, Susan E. Ebeler
The significance of carotenoid cleavage reactions in vegetation and animals has been recognized because the early 1900s. those early reviews validated that ?-carotene used to be degraded to shape diet A, that's very important for human healthiness and performs a serious function in imaginative and prescient. despite the fact that, the particular biochemical mechanisms concerned, and the enzyme answerable for B-carotene cleavage in vivo, weren't pointed out until eventually the mid- to late-1990s (Wolf 1995; Woggon 2000, von Lintig and Vogt) (1-3). additionally within the past due 1990's, comparable carotenoid cleavage enzymes have been pointed out in vegetation and located to be vital within the creation of plant hormones (Schwartz et al., 1997) (4) and aroma compounds. those enzymatic cleavage reactions had only in the near past been chanced on on the time of the final ACS symposium on Carotenoid Derived Aroma Compounds (Winterhalter and Rouseff, 2001) (5) and merely 3 papers on enzymatic creation of apo-carotenoids have been provided. on account that that point, the sphere has exploded and the significance of carotenoid cleavage enzymes in organic reactions has been well-established. the present ACS Symposium on Carotenoid Cleavage items was once designed to spotlight those contemporary discoveries, concentrating on the genetic and molecular biology of carotenoid cleavage enzymes, the significance of apo-carotenoids in style and aroma of end result, greens, and wines, and the expanding curiosity in biotechnological points of apo-carotenoid production.
These complaints should be a important connection with nutrition scientists, biochemists, and analytical chemists who're on the leading edge of figuring out the chemistry, research, and bioactivity of carotenoids and their cleavage items
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Extra resources for Carotenoid Cleavage Products
In Arabidopsis thaliana nine clades of dioxygenases were defined (11). Five of these clades, the 9cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases (NCEDs): NCED2, NCED3, NCED5, NCED6, and NCED9, are closely related to VP14 and also cleave the 11,12(11′,12′) double bonds of the 9-cis isomers of neoxanthin and violaxanthin to yield xanthoxin, the precursor of abscisic acid (ABA). The remaining four clades: CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, and CCD8) have low sequence homologies, and their enzyme activity and substrate specificity differ when comparing to the NCEDs.
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