By Ewa Kulczykowska, Wlodzimierz Popek, B.G. Kapoor
Each one organism has its personal inner organic clock, that is reset via environmental cues (Zeitgebers), therefore maintaining it synchronized with the exterior setting. it's a chemically dependent oscillating process inside of cells, counting on molecular suggestions loops. Circadian organic clocks exist in such a lot organisms. what's so unique concerning the clock in fish? the place is it located—in the retina, contained in the mind, or within the pineal? what's the molecular foundation of its functionality? How is the clock capable of hold time within the absence of environmental cues? even though organic clocks were intensively studied over the last 4 many years, only in the near past have the instruments had to learn the molecular foundation of circadian rhythms turn into to be had. This ebook reports the kingdom of data in adequate aspect and offers the most recent contributions to the sector, exhibiting fish supply a special version of the circadian organic clock.
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Additional resources for Biological Clock in Fish
Falcón. 2006. Melatonin Pathway: Breaking the “High-at-Night” Rule in Trout Retina. Experimental Eye Research 82: 620–627. 28 Biological Clock in Fish Boesze-Battaglia, K. and C. Allen. 1998. Differential rhodopsin regeneration in photoreceptor membranes is correlated with variations in membrane properties. Bioscience Reports 18: 29–38. Boeuf, G. and J. Falcón. 2001. Photoperiod and growth in fish. Vie et Milieu 51: 237–246. , J. A. Ali. 1995. Regulation of melatonin secretion by light in the isolated pineal organ of the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni).
And H. 1981. ). Correlation between structure and function. Journal of Comparative Physiology 144: 127–137. Falcón, J. and J. Tanabe. 1983. Early receptor potential of pineal organ and lateral eye of the pike. Naturwissenschaften 70: 149–150. Falcón, J. and P. Gaildrat. 1997. Variations in cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate content and efflux from the photosensitive pineal organ of the pike in culture. Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 433: 336–342.
If the clock mechanisms seem very similar between fish and mammals (Cahill, 2002), it is not yet known if all the clock genes operate in the same cell or whether there is a tissue-specific expression of the different homolog genes expressed (as is the case for the AANATs for example). The CLOCK-BMAL heterodimer could be the link through which Aanat2 expression is driven because its promoter contains several consensus binding sites for the CLOCK-BMAL heterodimer (E-box responsive elements). , 2007).