By R. Viswanathan, W. T. Bakker, J. D. Parker
The greater than forty papers during this quantity disguise the advance and checking out of ferritic steels for complicated strength plant, microstructure and creep habit, fabrication and houses. harm improvement and engineering functions
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Bolt Materials for High Temperature Application / COST 501 & COST 522 Increased steam parameters will also lead to higher temperatures for the bolts. Depending on their load and operating temperature the following bolt materials are currently used in steam turbines: low alloyed steels, 12%Cr steels and Nickel alloys. Basically Nickel alloys such as the well-known Nimonics could meet the requirements although these materials suffer from certain disadvantages. Their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is much higher than for 12%Cr steels and therefore Nickel bolts exhibit a loss of pre-strain during the start-up procedure.
A new contract in Germany involves a coal-fired plant with live steam parameters of 597°C/283bar and 618°C re-heat temperature. The experience that the manufacturers of these plant components have gained so far is very positive. 5%Mo types is also demonstrated by the number of manufactured and installed power plant components. More than 800 forgings with a total delivery weight of approx. 3 '000 tonnes have already been produced in Europe in these new steel grades. This number includes steam turbine rotors 20 and shaft ends, gas turbine rotor discs and various other forged components.
The results are shown in Fig. 2. 2% at which V carbide does not coagulate at temperatures of 600-700°C and fme particles of the M23C6type carbide is controlled by V carbide. Table 3 Steel No. 20 . 038 0:017 Bal. Bal. 98. 20 Bal. Bat. 18 I- -Bal. 017 0:018 0~20 . 5~ . Mn Si w_\ Mo Chemical composition C No. of steels with different Mo contents .. ~. Bat Bal. B·al. i ~20 ____ ~. : °0 Fig. 4 Effect of V on rupture strength ofTAF steel 37 (3) Effect ofNb on creep rupture strength ofTAF steel In order to investigate the effect of Nb, the specimens shown in Table 5 are melted and the creep rupture tests are carried out at temperatures of 600-700°C.