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Download A story of light: a short introduction to quantum field by M. Y. Han PDF

By M. Y. Han

Provides the basic facets of relativistic quantum box idea with minimum use of arithmetic. It covers the advance of quantum box idea from the unique quantization of electromagnetic box to the gauge box concept of interactions between quarks and leptons.

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In the microscopic scale of quantum world — of atoms, nuclei and elementary particles — a physical object behaves in such a way that exhibits the properties of both a wave and a particle. Often the wave–particle duality of quantum world is presented as physical objects that are both a wave and a particle. To us, with human intuition being nurtured in the macroscopic world, this simplistic picture of wave–particle duality is, of course, completely counterintuitive. A quantum mechanical object is actually neither a wave in the classical sense nor a particle in the classical sense, but rather it defines 22 September 23, 2004 10:11 WSPC/SPI-B241: A Story of Light Particles and Fields II: Duality chap04 23 a totally new reality, the quantum reality, that in some circumstances exhibits properties much like those of classical particles and in some other circumstances displays properties much like those of classical wave.

That is its rationalization. September 23, 2004 10:12 WSPC/SPI-B241: A Story of Light chap08 8 Road Map for Field Quantization We are now ready to proceed with the quantization of classical fields — the classical electromagnetic, Klein–Gordon and Dirac fields — that were discussed in the last chapter. The quantization of these fields is to be carried out following the rules of canonical quantization, as discussed in Chapter 3. Before imposing canonical quantization onto the classical fields, however, we need to extend the Lagrangian formalism from that of point mechanics to one more suitable for continuous classical field variables.

In one-particle quantum mechanics, both non-relativistic and relativistic, it is usually more convenient to adopt the Schr¨ odinger picture and the time development of a system is given by the wavefunctions as functions of time. In quantum field theory wherein the time-dependent fields and their conjugate momenta become operators, the formalism is necessarily in the Heisenberg picture. Let us spell out the bare essence of the relationship between the two pictures, as far as canonical quantization rules are concerned.

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