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Download A Practical Approach to Motor Vehicle Engineering and Maint. by A. Bonnick, D. Newbold PDF

By A. Bonnick, D. Newbold

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Extra resources for A Practical Approach to Motor Vehicle Engineering and Maint.

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It may also contain part of a water jacket which forms part of the cooling system. g. cast iron or aluminium. The cylinder head is illustrated in Fig. 27. Cylinder head tightening sequence To avoid distorting either the cylinder head or the head gasket the tightening sequence (order) must be followed. The torque settings must also be correct to prevent over-stretching of Engines and lubrication Fig. 27 Cylinder head – exploded view 35 36 A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and maintenance the bolts and studs or stripping of the threads.

We cannot change the fact that oil becomes thinner as it is heated, but it is possible, by the use of additives to the base oil, to reduce the extent to which this happens. For example, an oil having a viscosity of 10 W at À18  C can be improved so that it also has a viscosity of SAE30 at 100  C. As the oil now has a viscosity equivalent to SAE10 W at À18  C and a viscosity equivalent to SAE30 at 100  C, it is marked with both numbers, that is SAE 10 W/30. g. 10 W/50 which may be used in any climate enables the cold engine to start on a thin oil (SAE10 W) and, when hot, to run on a sufficiently thick oil (SAE50).

Seals Oil seals (Fig. 35) are placed at each end of the crankshaft and camshaft to prevent the loss of oil between the shafts and their housings. Where the surfaces do not move, gaskets are used to ensure a water-, oil- and gas-tight seal, for example between the cylinder head and the cylinder block. 40 A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and maintenance Fig. 35 Crankshaft oil seals Sump The bottom of the engine is enclosed by a sump which normally contains the engine oil. Commonly made from sheet steel it is often placed in the air flow under the car to assist in cooling the oil.

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