By M. Hassan Kakar
This political and diplomatic historical past of past due nineteenth-century Afghanistan and its significant ethnic teams lays naked how the floor was once laid for the emergence of Afghanistan as a geographical region in addition to for the implementation of schemes of modernization.
It describes how Amir Sher ‘Ali Khan and, extra absolutely, Amir ‘Abd al-Rahman Khan for the 1st time consolidated the authority of the imperative executive on the fee of the conventional self sustaining neighborhood magnates, and therefore controlled to prepare a centralized monarchical nation and expand its direct rule thoughout Afghanistan.
They did so within the days of what has turn into referred to as the good video game for the mastery of critical Asian states. even if the good online game led to the aid of Afghanistan in measurement, it additionally resulted in the transparent demarcation of its limitations in line with foreign agreements.
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Extra resources for A Political And Diplomatic History of Afghanistan, 1863-1901 (Brill's Inner Asian Library)
20 The word “hung” indicates that Roberts had already decided to hang all those who were caught whether tried or not. This and other similar actions led MacGregor to conclude that “. . ”21 Roberts’ order made the political commission that had been set up to determine who had taken part in the massacre almost meaningless. However, some oﬃcials, including MacGregor, saved the lives of a few Afghans who would otherwise have been. As an alien non-Muslim military despot, Roberts had a logic of his own which was to employ force in order to intimidate the Afghans into submission and also to inﬂict revenge.
49. 9 the british afghan war 29 to eventually become a part of the British Empire as Baluchistan had become in 1876, and as Chitral became later in 1895. If the Afghans revoked the treaty the British would then feel justiﬁed in taking military actions against them. ”12 The Destruction of the British Embassy in Kabul The amir claimed that by concluding the Gandumak treaty he had saved Afghanistan from destruction. In fact, the British had already started withdrawing their army, but the withdrawal had not been completed by the time the British embassy in Kabul was destroyed.
29 While it appears that Roberts was simply carrying out the instructions of his superior, in reality he himself held a similar view even before he received Lytton’s instructions: Lytton’s instructions were dated September 29th, while Roberts had already—made up his mind about the punishment by September 14th, as previously noted. 22 Roberts quoted in MacGregor, War in Afghanistan, n. 167. Trousdale, Introduction in War in Afghanistan, 60. 24 MacGregor, War in Afghanistan, 112. , 101. 26 Roberts, Siah Sang, Kabul, 9 Oct.