By Stefan Gänzle, Kristine Kern
The members query even if macro-regional concepts are valuable tools for bettering actor-policy linkages on the eu, member/partner nations, and sub-national degrees, and no matter if the target of social, monetary and territorial harmony will be fulfilled via those strategies.
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Additional resources for A 'Macro-regional' Europe in the Making: Theoretical Approaches and Empirical Evidence
G. g. the Arctic Council, Union of Arab Maghreb, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation); have a single, distinct or thematic agenda (Helsinki Convention); or the areas covered correspond with what have been convincingly labelled ‘substate regions’ whereby such cooperation between two or more contiguous states has been referred to as simply ‘transfrontier’ or ‘cross-border’ (see Cottey, 1999). Deas and Lord (2006) identify some 145 examples of this type of cooperation, which they call ‘non-standard regionalism’ and which, when mapped, reveals an elaboration of ‘confusing, overlapping boundaries, reflecting both the infancy of many of the initiatives, their often-experimental nature and, in many cases, their continuing struggle to establish legitimacy and permanency’ (Deas and Lord, 2006, 1850–1).
Christiansen, T. (1997) ‘A European Meso-region? European Union Perspectives on the Baltic Sea Region’, in P. ) Neo-nationalism or Regionalism? The Re-structuring of Political Space around the Baltic Rim (Stockholm: NordREFO), 254–92. Committee of the Regions (2009) White Paper on Multilevel Governance, Brussels. Cottey, A. ) (1999) Subregional Cooperation in the New Europe. Building Security, Prosperity and Solidarity from the Barents to the Black Sea (Houndmills and London: Macmillan). Dangerfield, M.
Second, if, in contrast, we perceive of governance as an intermediary level of the EU’s MLG system, the answer is ‘yes’, as macro-regions seem to be ‘a new and complementary layer of integration in Europe [. ] that is not an isolated phenomenon but indicates a general process of territorial restructuring or spatial reconfiguration which essentially changes Europe’s existing geography’ (Nagler, 2013, p. 56). Clearly, our answers are very tentative at this early stage of macro-regionalization and macro-regional strategies.