By Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard
The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive historical past of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the historical past, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.
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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades, Volume V: The impact of the crusades on the Near East
91. 1bn-abi-U~aibi'ah, 'Uyun, II, 112. 92. 432. 93. lbn-abi-U~bi'ah, 'Uy~n. II, US- 116. 94. , p. 117. ' .. 26 A BISI'ORY OF THE C RUSADES v mors of the body, and familiar with the various diseases to which man is susceptible and with the medicines which should be prescribed for each. Similar conditions were requi red of oculists (sing. lilq (d. 873). Bone-setters were required to know the exact number of bones in the human body and the shape and form of each. " The tradition of caring for the sick in hospitals supported by endowments, which goes back to the ninth century, was continued, especially by the two Zengids and Saladin.
270-271. Sarton, op. , 11-2, 631-632. Ch . FTB CENTURY 23 figure in this field in the twelfth century was at-Tughra'i, •• who was put to death about 1121 on a charge of atheism. Several factors spurred Arab interest in geography. There was the need of Moslem communities to determine the direction of the Ka'bah both for orienting mosques toward it and for the individual faithful to face it at the time of prayer; the interest in establishing correct latitudes and longitudes for astrological purposes and practice; the practical problems of pilgrims from the whole eastern hemisphere, traveling to Medina and Mecca; and the normal demands of commerce and trade by land and sea.
Although the illustrious names of Arab medical lore belong to an earlier period, the Arabs of the twelfth century retained their interest in the art of medicine (¥Jn~'ah) and maintained their superiority over others in its practice. " Nevertheless, no great medical contribution was made during the century. Furthermore, while the art remained a near monopoly of dhimmi physicians, those who distinguished themselves in its practice were, for the most part, Jews. The Frankish-Moslem struggle was already bearing its poisonous fruits of fanaticism, which destroyed the confidence of the public in Christian practitioners and helped make Arab medicine, from the late twelfth century through the thirteenth, largely Jewish.