By M. C. Ricklefs
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Extra resources for A History of Modern Indonesia: c. 1300 to the Present
Upon hearing the first reports of Malacca's great wealth which came from Asian traders, the Portuguese king sent Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca. to make a friendly compact with its ruler and to stay on there as Portugal's representative east of India. All did not go well for Sequeira when he arrived in Malacca in 1509. At first he was well received by Sultan Mahmud Syah (r. 1488-1528), but then the international Muslim trading community of the city convinced Mahmud that the Portuguese posed a grave threat to him.
This rich pepper port was to remain the centre of English activities until 1682. Lancaster returned to England with such an enormous load of pepper that some of it could not be sold, and investors had to be repaid partly in pepper. Lancaster's reputation had been restored. In 1604 the second English East India Company voyage under Sir Henry Middleton reached Ternate, Tidore, Ambon and Banda. But here VOC hostility THE ARRIVAL OF THE EUROPEANS 27 was encountered, and fierce Anglo-Dutch competition for access to the spices began.
Awijaya (who left inscriptions in 1486). Sometime between 1486 and Tome Pires's time (1512-15), the centre of the Hindu-Buddhist king- 34 A HISTORY OF MODERN INDONESIA dom was for some reason moved to K~diri; whether it was still under the Majapahit dynasty is uncertain. Whatever the case, the Hindu-Buddhist state was by this time in an advanced state of collapse, rent by internal conflict and threatened by the new states arising on the coast. During Demak's military expansion, the Hindu-Buddhist state (at Kediri) was conquered c.