By Hans Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus
Nuclear double beta decay is without doubt one of the such a lot promising instruments for probing beyond-the-standard-model physics on beyond-accelerator power scales. it truly is already now probing the TeV scale, on which new physics may still present itself in keeping with theoretical expectancies. in basic terms within the early Eighties used to be it recognized that double beta decay yields info at the Majorana mass of the exchanged neutrino. at the moment, the sharpest certain for the electron neutrino mass arises from this procedure. it is just within the final 10 years that the even more far-reaching strength of double beta decay has been came across. this day, the potential for double beta decay encompasses a large diversity of issues which are both suitable to particle physics and astrophysics, reminiscent of plenty of heavy neutrinos, of sneutrinos, as SUSY types, compositeness, leptoquarks, left-right symmetric versions, and assessments of Lorentz symmetry and equivalence precept within the neutrino quarter. Double beta decay has turn into imperative these days for fixing the matter of the neutrino mass spectrum and the constitution of the neutrino mass matrix - including current and destiny sun and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments. a few destiny double beta experiments (like Genius) can be able to be at the same time neutrino observatories for double beta decay and low-energy sunlight neutrinos, and observatories for chilly darkish subject of final sensitivity. This worthy publication outlines the advance of double beta study from its beginnings until eventually its latest achievements, and likewise provides the outlook for its hugely fascinating destiny.
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Extra info for 60 Years of Double Beta Decay
33 Samoil Bilenkii, Fig. 34 Hisakazu Mina(middle) with Rabindra N. kata at KEK meeting, Mohapatra and T . Kotani, Japan, November 1997 at the Erice Neutrino School, (foto author). Sicily, Italy, September 1997. Fig. 35 Osamu Yasuda and John Vergados at the BEYOND'99 Conference, Castle Ringberg, Germany, 1999 (foto author). by OvfiP decay excludes the small angle and large-angle MSW solution if neutrinos are near-degenerate, "forcing us into the vacuum-oscillation solution, in which the neutrino mass degeneracy must be at the level of one part in 10 10 ".
Takaoka and G. Ogata used tellurium ores from the Oya gold mine in Japan, T. Kirsten et al. W. Hennecke et al. an ore from the Kalgoorlie mine in Australia, while T. Bernatowicz et al. investigated probes from various mines. 2 x 10m yr essentially confirming earlier results [Ber92*-I], [Ber93**-I], [Man91*-I]. These experiments, looking only for the daughter nucleus, naturally cannot differentiate between the neutrinoless and the two-neutrino decay processes. 2x10** years. Also the radiochemical investigation of 238U has been improved more recently (Tur91*-I|.
All of this was still consistent with the upper mass limit of 25 to 30 eV deduced [Sat87], [Kol87], [Arn87] from the observed time- and energy spread of the neutrinos from SN87a, the first naked-eye supernova since the invention of the telescope, discovered on February 24, 1987 m the Large Magellanic Cloud. However, these early limits from double beta decay suffered from a serious drawback. The Heidelberg group [Gro83a*-II] among others were the first to stress, that the calculation of the nuclear matrix elements entering into the analysis was by far not solved to a degree of reliability (the 'best' calculations of two-neutrino double beta decay rates at that time - which were shell model calculations [Hax82a*-I], [Hax84**-I] - disagreed with experiment by up to two orders magnitude) that reliable conclusions could be drawn on the neutrino mass at this stage.